Decreased risk of type 2 diabetes with high dairy intake
This study entitled: “Dairy products and the risk of type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of cohort studies” takes another look at the evidence on the association between intake of dairy products and the risk of type 2 diabetes.
Although diet is thought to be of major importance for the increased prevalence of type 2 diabetes, few dietary factors have been established as risk factors for type 2 diabetes.
The results support the hypothesis that intake of dairy products decreases the risk of type 2 diabetes. Significant inverse associations were also found for low-fat dairy products, low-fat or skim milk and cheese, and for yogurt in the high compared with low analysis, but no significant association was observed for high-fat dairy products or total milk.
Abstract as follows
Background: The association between intake of dairy products and the risk of type 2 diabetes has been investigated in several studies, but the evidence is not conclusive.
Objective: We conducted an updated systematic review and dose response meta-analysis of dairy product intake and the risk of type 2 diabetes.
Design: We searched the PubMed database for prospective cohort and nested case-control studies of dairy product intake and risk of type 2 diabetes up to 5 June 2013. Summary RRs were estimated by use of a random-effects model.
Results: Seventeen cohort studies were included in the meta-analysis. In the dose-response analysis, the summary RRs (95% CIs)were 0.93 (0.87, 0.99; I2 = 33%) per 400 g total dairy products/d (n= 12), 0.98 (0.94, 1.03; I2 = 8%) per 200 g high-fat dairy products/d (n = 9), 0.91 (0.86, 0.96; I2 = 40%) per 200 g low-fat dairyproducts/d (n = 9), 0.87 (0.72, 1.04; I2 = 94%) per 200 g milk/d (n = 7), 0.92 (0.86, 0.99; I2 = 0%) per 50 g cheese/d (n = 8),and 0.78 (0.60, 1.02; I2 = 70%) per 200 g yogurt/d (n = 7). Non linear inverse associations were observed for total dairy products (P-nonlinearity, 0.0001), low-fat dairy products (P-nonlinearity = 0.06), cheese (P-nonlinearity = 0.05), and yogurt (P-nonlinearity = 0.004), and there was a flattening of the curve at higher intakes.
Conclusions: This meta-analysis suggests that there is a significant inverse association between intakes of dairy products, low-fat dairy products, and cheese and risk of type 2 diabetes. Any additional studies should assess the association between other specific types of dairy products and the risk of type 2 diabetes and adjust for more confounding factors.
Citation: Aune D., Norat T., Romundstad P., Vatten L.J., Dairy products and the risk of type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of cohort studies, American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 2013.
North America is the northern subcontinent of the Americas covering about 16.5% of the Earth's land area. This large continent has a range of climates spanning Greenland’s permanent ice sheet and the dry deserts of Arizona. Both Canada and the USA are major food producers and some of the largest food exporters in the world. Industrial farms are the norm in North America, with high yields relative to other regions and only 2% of the population involved in agriculture.
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